This book outlines current research efforts that are focused on identifying better diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of organ injury due to heat illnesses such as heat exhaustion, heat injury, and heat stroke. The purpose of the research is to identify more effective biomarkers of organ damage that will facilitate better understanding of the pathophysiological changes occurring during recovery. Identification of more sensitive and specific diagnostics which are needed for identification of pharmacologic strategies that will improve recovery.
Classic heat stroke is a life-threatening condition experienced primarily by the very young or elderly during annual heat waves and also by young, fit individuals during strenuous physical activity in hot or temperate environments. Heat stroke can result in central nervous system dysfunction that includes combativeness, delirium, seizures, and severe organ injury. Many heat stroke victims experience permanent neurological dysfunction and peripheral organ injury that require months or years to resolve.
Heat stroke sequelae are a consequence of heat injury to the tissues in combination with coagulopathies and a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Endotoxin leakage across ischemic-damaged gut membranes is thought to initiate the SIRS with cytokines, and other inflammatory mediators are involved in this multi-factorial process. Rapid cooling at the time of heat stroke collapse is the most effective treatment to limit the severity of organ injury, but does not prevent long-term sequelae in all individuals. This book seeks to identify the current strategies that will improve recovery.
Table of Contents
Principles of Temperature Regulation
Clinical Characteristics of Heat Stroke
The Systemic Inflammatory Response to Heat Stroke
Biomarkers for Organ Injury Assessment
Adaptive and Maladaptive Responses
Clinical Management of Heat Stroke
About the Author(s)Lisa R. Leon
, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Thermal Mountain Medicine Division, Natick, Massachusetts
Lisa R. Leon, Ph.D., received a B.A. degree (1985) in Anthropology-Zoology, an M.S. in Kinesiology (1990) and Ph.D. (1996) in Physiology from the University of Michigan. She completed postdoctoral training at the Lovelace Institutes, the National Institutes of Health, and the University of Delaware before accepting a Research Physiologist position at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) in 2001. She is currently Team Leader of the Environmental Pathophysiology research program at USARIEM and also serves as Adjunct Associate Professor in the Human Physiology Program at Boston University. She is a member of several editorial boards including the Journal of Applied Physiology and the American Journal of Physiology. Her research is focused on unraveling the mechanisms that mediate systemic inflammation to heat stroke with the goal of discovering novel biomarkers and pharmacologics to improve diagnosis and treatment of multi-organ system dysfunction.