Molecular Mechanisms of Body Water Homeostasis

Molecular Mechanisms of Body Water Homeostasis

Carolyn M. Ecelbarger, Dharmendra Kumar Chaudhary, Hwal Lee, Swasti Tiwari
ISBN: 9781615047321 | PDF ISBN: 9781615047338
Copyright © 2017 | 100 Pages | Publication Date: November, 2016

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This book discusses our intimate relationship with and dependence on water, how the body regulates its water levels, and various pathophysiological states associated with impairments in body water homeostasis. The human body consists of 70-80% water. Therefore, concise control of water homeostasis is essential to survival and involves coordination of several systems, but primarily the brain and kidney systems. Water requirements of the average healthy human range between 2-4 L/d, and a major portion of this can come from food sources. The major hormonal regulator of water balance is the anti-diuretic hormone, vasopressin. Vasopressin, a 9-amino acid peptide, is produced in the hypothalamus, stored in the posterior pituitary, and secreted when plasma osmolality rises. Vasopressin acts on the kidney to conserve water. The kidneys filter ~180 L of blood per day, consisting of about 50-65% water, and reabsorb around 99% of this in the proximal tubule, distal tubule, and collecting duct, producing only 1-2 L of urine. The vasopressin-sensitive distal tubule and collecting duct are responsible for fine-tuning water reabsorption. Conditions exist, however, where urine cannot be concentrated effectively. This is known as diabetes insipidus and can lead to dehydration and failure to thrive. At the other extreme, hyponatremia (low serum sodium) is the inability to adequately dilute urine or get rid of free body water in excess of body needs, a serious and sometimes fatal condition.

Table of Contents

Water, Water Everywhere
The Brain, AVP, and Water Balance
Renal Control of Water Reabsorption
Hyponatremia
Diabetes Insipidus
Additional Pathophysiological States Associated with Impaired Water Balance
References
Author Biographies

About the Author(s)

Carolyn M. Ecelbarger, Department of Medicine, Georgetown University
Carolyn Mary Ecelbarger, Ph.D., is a tenured Associate Professor of Medicine at Georgetown University in Washington, DC, where she is in the Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in Nutritional Sciences. She serves on the editorial boards of the American Journal of Physiology-renal and the American Journal of Physiology-regulatory, Integrative, and Comparative. At Georgetown University, she is a member of the Faculty Senate, the Center for the Study of Sex Differences in Health and Disease, and a long-standing member of the IACUC. She has been a member of the Faculty of Medicine 1000 since 2010. In 2000, she received the Young Investigator Award from the Water and Electrolyte Homeostasis Section of the American Physiological Society. In 2007, she received the Established Investigator Award from the American Heart Association. Dr. Ecelbarger's research centers on the regulation of the kidney by insulin, vasopressin, and the metabolic syndrome, and how this impacts in water and electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure. She also examines and has reported on sex differences in these responses. She has published over 80 peer-reviewed manuscripts, book chapters, editorials, and commentaries. In her free time, she enjoys reading and recreational running.

Dharmendra Kumar Chaudhary, Department of Medicine, Sanjay Gandhi PGI
Dr. Dharmendra Kumar Chaudhary received his Ph.D. in 2014 from the Biotechnology Division of Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal Central University, in Uttarakhand, India. Prior to his post-doctoral studies, he was a member of the Teaching Faculty in the Department of Nuclear Medicine at Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar Central University in Lucknow, India. In June 2016, Dr. Chaudhary began as a Postdoctoral Fellow in the Department of Molecular Medicine & Biotechnology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences (SGPGIMS), in Lucknow. The focus of his studies is on understanding the pathophysiology surrounding diabetic kidney disease. Dr. Chaudhary has authored 33 articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals and has five book chapters to his credit.

Hwal Lee, Department of Medicine, Georgetown University
Hwal Lee is a graduating senior in the B.S. in Sports and Health Sciences program at American Public University. He is a member of the American Society of Nephrology, the Golden Key International Honour Society, the American College of Sports Medicine, and the Australian Counselling Association. Hwal currently participates in biomedical research in endocrinology and metabolism in the laboratory of Dr. Carolyn Ecelbarger in the Department of Medicine at Georgetown University in Washington, DC. His other passion involves supporting adults with serious and persistent mental illness in Northern Virginia through direct engagement, care, and rehabilitation. Hwal has been named in the American Public University System President's Honors List in January and October 2016, for his academic excellence, and was recently appointed lifetime University Ambassador in recognition of his commitment to community service. His professional experiences in Australia and the U.S. include appointments in primary care, substance abuse, homeless health, and community outreach. He plans to continue his involvement with current projects before commencing graduate studies.

Swasti Tiwari, Department of Medicine, Sanjay Gandhi PGI
Dr. Swasti Tiwari received her Ph.D. in Molecular Endocrinology in 2002 from Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences (SGPGIMS), Lucknow, India. She trained as a post-doctoral fellow at the National Institutes of Aging, National Institutes of Health, as well as at Georgetown University, Washington, DC. In 2006, Dr. Tiwari was promoted to an Assistant Professor in the Division of Endocrinology & Metabolism at Georgetown University, where she conducted studies on the regulation of the kidney by insulin and related factors. In 2010, Dr. Tiwari took the opportunity to return to her homeland and accepted a faculty position at SGPGIMS where she received her Ph.D. She is currently working as an Associate Professor and Chair of the Department of Molecular Medicine & Biotechnology, SGPGIMS. She also holds an adjunct faculty appointment at Georgetown University. Dr. Tiwari has 36 publications to her credit in peer-reviewed scientific journals and has made several scientific presentations at various scientific meetings.

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