Many of the mechanisms responsible for cardiovascular disease and hypertension are well known, and gender is an independent risk factor in many cohorts. How gender contributes to cardiovascular disease has not been completely elucidated. Even in normotensive populations, blood pressure is higher in men than women, although why this occurs is unclear. While both men and women suffer from high incidences of cardiovascular disease, women are typically protected against cardiovascular disease until after menopause, so that on average they are about 10 years older than men when these diseases develop, making aging a confounding problem contributing to increased morbidity. Because hypertension is one of the leading causes of cardiovascular disease in both men and women, this review will focus on hypertension, and the mechanisms that have been found to play a role in mediating blood pressure control and how they differ in men and women.
Table of Contents
Overview and Epidemiology
Genetic and Non-Genetic Models of Hypertension
Hypertension and Sympathetic Nervous System Activation
Renin Angiotensin System
Aging and Hypertension
Developmental Programming of Cardiovascular Disease
T Cells and Hypertension
Sex Steroids and Receptors
About the Author(s)Jane Reckelhoff
, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi
Jane F. Reckelhoff, Ph.D., is currently Professor of Physiology and Biophysics, Director of the Women's Health Research Center, and Director of Research Development in the Office of Research at the University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson. She received a Bachelor of Science degree from the College of William and Mary, in Williamsburg, VA, in Chemistry, and a Ph.D. in Biochemistry from Medical College of Virginia/Virginia Commonwealth University, in Richmond. Dr. Reckelhoff did a postdoctoral fellowship in Physiology at Texas Southwestern Medical School in Dallas, and another one with Dr. Chris Baylis at West Virginia University, before coming to the University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson, as an assistant professor. Dr. Reckelhoff has made seminal contributions on the roles that sex steroids play in control of blood pressure and renal function, and the mechanisms responsible for postmenopausal hypertension. As a testament to her research excellence, Dr. Reckelhoff has received numerous awards, including the Harry Goldblatt Award in Cardiovascular Research from the Council for High Blood Pressure Research, the Young Scholar Award from the American Society of Hypertension and Monarch Pharmaceuticals, the Lewis K. Dahl Award for Hypertension Research, and the Harriet Dustan Award for Outstanding Contributions to Research from the Council for High Blood Pressure Research. Dr. Reckelhoff 's work has been continuously funded by the National Institutes of Health for the past 15 years.