Gastrointestinal Mucosal Defense System

Gastrointestinal Mucosal Defense System

Peter R. Kvietys, Ahmed Yaqinuddin, Wael Al Kattan
ISBN: 9781615041473 | PDF ISBN: 9781615041480
Copyright © 2014 | 172 Pages | Publication Date: 10/01/2014

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The gastrointestinal mucosal defense system serves to minimize mucosal injury by either ingested or endogenously produced noxious substances. The mucosal defense system is stratified into pre-epithelial (alkaline mucus), epithelial (dynamic epithelial lining), and post-epithelial (microcirculation) components. The mucus lining the epithelial surface presents a diffusional barrier to ingested material (e.g., lipids) and also serves as an unstirred layer in which a pH gradient can be established to prevent acid-induced injury. The epithelial lining prevents entrance of any toxic material to the interstitium and, should it be damaged, it is rapidly resealed by migration of adjacent viable epithelial cells to cover the defect. Any acid or other material that has entered the interstitium is washed out by an intense neurogenic hyperemia. In general, the mucosal defense system is quite effective and any adverse gastrointestinal effects associated with the normal course of nutrient assimilation are minimal. However, there are two situations in which the mucosal defense system is known to be ineffective and result in gastric mucosal injury: inadvertent ingestion of H. pylori. or intentional ingestion of NSAIDs. H. pylori can penetrate the mucus layers and cause epithelial injury and inflammation, while at the same time preventing its clearance by the host immune system. NSAIDs weaken the mucus layer and cause epithelial cell injury.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments
Introduction
The Mucus Layer
Epithelial Lining
Gastrointestinal Circulation
Integration of Mucosal Defense
Mucosal Defense System: Physiologic
Mucosal Defense System: H. pylori
Mucosal Defense System: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS)
Overall Summary and Conclusions
References
Author Biographies

About the Author(s)

Peter R. Kvietys, College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, KSA
Peter R. Kvietys, Ph.D., is a Professor of Physiology at Alfaisal University and a Scientist in the Department of Cell Biology at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. He received his Ph.D. from Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan, U.S. Dr. Kvietys has been a consultant for various government agencies both in the U.S. (e.g., NIH) and Canada (e.g., CIHR). He has served as an Associate Editor of the American Journal of Physiology: Gastrointestinal & Liver Physiology. Dr. Kvietys has published numerous research papers and several books dealing with various aspects of the gastrointestinal physiology and pathophysiology.

Ahmed Yaqinuddin, College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, KSA
Ahmed Yaqinuddin, M.B.B.S., Ph. D. is an Assistant Professor of Anatomy and Cell Biology at Alfaisal University and a Scientist in the Department of Molecular Oncology at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. He received his M.B.B.S. from the University of Karachi and Ph.D. from Aga Khan University in Karachi, Pakistan. Dr. Yaqinuddin's research interests include molecular mechanisms in the development and progression of cancers as well as tissue injury and repair.

Wael Al Kattan, College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, KSA
Wael Al Kattan, M.D., F.R.C.S.C., F.A.C.S., is Associate Professor and Consultant of Surgery and Head of the Department of Surgery at the College of Medicine at Alfaisal University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. He received his M.D. from King Saud University in Riyadh and completed his general surgery residency at the University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. He obtained his fellowship qualification (F.R.C.S.C.) from the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. Dr. Al-Kattan has an interest in medical education and is actively involved in teaching in the Surgery Clerkship and Gastrointestinal blocks. His clinical practice is focused on hepatobiliary, pancreatic, and upper gastrointestinal oncology.

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