Protein synthesis is a fundamental aspect of gene expression across kingdoms. The regulation of translation is important for many biological processes including cell fate determination, development, and growth and is especially crucial to maintain cellular homeostasis during cellular stress and virus infection. Misregulation of protein translation can contribute to diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. In this chapter, we highlight the basic understanding of eukaryotic translation and the major regulations that control biological events. We focus on signaling pathways that regulate overall protein synthesis and also mechanisms that control translation of specific mRNAs such as cis-acting elements within the 5' and 3 untranslated regions (UTR). Understanding these mechanisms provide insights into the fundamental gene regulations that may provide new targets for combating disease and virus infections.
Table of Contents
Regulation of Cap-dependent Translation
Selective Translation of mRNAs
About the Author(s)Eric Jan
, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of British Columbia
Dr. Eric Jan is currently an Associate Professor in the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the University of British Columbia. He obtained his Bachelor of Science (Honours) in Biochemistry at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario (1990-1994). From 1994 to 1999, as a PhD graduate student, he studied the translational controls that regulate sex-determination in C. elegans. From 1999 to 2005, he joined Dr. Peter Sarnow's group as a postdoctoral fellow at Stanford University. Dr. Jan studied the mechanism of the internal ribosome entry sites that direct translation of viral RNAs. In 2006, he joined the faculty at the University of British Columbia as an assistant professor and then as an Associate Professor in 2011. Dr. Jan's major research interest is to identify and understand noncanonical translation mechanisms that are utilized during cellular stress and virus infections. His work has been supported by the Canadian Institute of Health Research (CIHR), National Sciences and Engineering Research Council, National Institutes of Health, Canadian Foundation of Innovation, and Genome Canada. Dr. Jan is a recipient of the CIHR New Investigator Award and a Michael Smith for Health Research Career Scholar. Dr. Jan is currently serving on the Virology editorial board and is an academic editor of PLoS ONE. Dr. Jan was raised outside of Toronto, Canada and is an avid skier and soccer player.