Epithelial Polarity

Epithelial Polarity

Gerard Apodaca, Luciana Gallo
ISBN: 9781615043989 | PDF ISBN: 9781615043996
Copyright © 2013 | 115 Pages | Publication Date: 03/01/2013

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Epithelial cells exhibit an apical–basolateral axis of polarity that is generated during embryogenesis, is maintained throughout adult life in the face of constant cell regeneration, and is perturbed in several epithelial-associated diseases. We examine the structural and functional organization of epithelial tissues, as well as the events critical for generating epithelial asymmetry including vectorial trafficking of proteins and lipids, association of signaling and polarity proteins with subdomains of the plasma membrane, and 3D orientation of epithelial cells in response to cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions. As a paradigm to understand how these three processes are coordinated in time and space, we explore apical lumen formation. We also examine the final steps in epithelial morphogenesis, including brush border morphogenesis and ciliogenesis. Finally, we provide examples of disease processes that result from defects in epithelial polarity including diabetes insipidus, microvillar inclusion disease, hereditary deafness, ciliopathies, and cancer.

Table of Contents

Introduction
Epithelial Cell Organization and Asymmetry
Generation and Maintenance of Epithelial Polarity
Diseases that Result from Defects in Epithelial Polarity
Acknowledgments
References
Author Biographies

About the Author(s)

Gerard Apodaca, Departments of Medicine and Cell Biology, University of Pittsburgh
Gerard Apodaca, Ph.D., is a Professor of Medicine and Cell Biology at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. He received his B.A. degree in Biology from Rollins College, Winter Park, FL in 1983 and his Ph.D. in Experimental Pathology from the University of California, San Francisco in 1989. His interest in epithelial cell biology originated from his training as a postdoctoral fellow in the laboratory of Dr. Keith Mostov at the University of California, San Francisco. There, he worked along with James Casanova, Ph.D., to identify one of the first bona fide basolateral sorting signals in the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor and later identified endocytic compartments and regulatory pathways critical for basolateral-to-apical transcytosis of this quintessential transcytotic membrane receptor. In 1995, he joined the faculty of the University of Pittsburgh, Department of Medicine, Renal-Electrolyte Division where he continues to work. His current research interests include the regulation of endocytic traffic in kidney epithelial cells, the role of uroplakins in epithelial polarity development and morphogenesis, and stretch-regulated exocytosis and endocytosis in bladder umbrella cells. Dr. Apodaca has received numerous awards and grants including an American Heart Association Established Investigator Award and a National Institutes of Health MERIT award. He currently serves as a standing member of the NIH Membrane Biology and Protein Processing review group, he is an Associate Editor of the American Journal of Physiology, Renal Physiology, and serves on the editorial board of American Journal of Physiology, Cell Physiology, and Traffic.

Luciana Gallo, Departments of Medicine and Cell Biology, University of Pittsburgh
Luciana I. Gallo received her Licentiate in Biological Sciences from the School of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina in 2004 and her Ph.D. in Cell Biology from the same university in 2009. She is currently a postdoctoral fellow in the Apodaca laboratory.

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