Endothelial Luminal Membrane-Glycocalyx

Endothelial Luminal Membrane-Glycocalyx
Functionalities in Health and Disease

Rafael Rubio, Maureen Knabb
ISBN: 9781615047543 | PDF ISBN: 9781615047550
Hardcover ISBN:9781615047635
Copyright © 2018 | 174 Pages | Publication Date: November, 2017

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This book focuses on the structural, biochemical, and diverse functional properties of the endothelial luminal membrane glycocalyx (ELMG), an organelle which constitutes the endothelial cell "membrane." It is intended to provide the newcomer with a broad, basic, and brief perspective of the luminal endothelial vascular membrane, and for the more established investigator, a basic overview and integrated perspective of the "universe" we explore.

The endothelium is an assortment of heterogeneous regulatory cells whose cytoplasm and cell membranes are joined, forming functional units. There is a tremendous amount of literature on the endothelial cell, constituting seemingly isolated and distinct fields of encapsulated research. However, the multifunctional properties of some molecules give rise to an overlap of findings, frequently ignored between the different fields.

The book is divided into three parts. The first part concentrates on the structure of the ELMG, with emphasis on morphological and biochemical composition. The importance of the chemical composition to the physiological functions of the ELMG, such as sieving properties, pharmacology, and flow sensing, is the focus of the second part of the book. Finally, some of the pathologies associated with ELMG dysfunction are explored in the last section.

The aim is to provide basic and well-established knowledge in the various individual fields, identify the current concepts in each area, and discuss their respective strengths and weaknesses (including hidden problems). Finally, the overall goal is to integrate areas where overlap is clearly indicated, bringing them all together to provide the first ever basic, integrative, panoramic bird's-eye view of the field.

Table of Contents

Preface
Acknowledgments

PART I THE DISTINCT MORPHOLOGICAL, PHYSICAL, BIOCHEMICAL, AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF THE ENDOTHELIAL LUMINAL MEMBRANE-GLYCOCALYX (ELMG)
1. The Endothelial Cell in situ is not an Isolated Cell, but a Complex of Cells
2. Morphological Structures: Diversity, Heterogeneity, and Appearance Depends on Staining Procedure
3. ELMG Structures Responsible for Interacting Forces
4. The Diverse Biochemical Composition of the ELMG

PART II THE DIVERSE STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF THE ENDOT HELIAL LUMINAL MEMBRANE-GLYCOCALYX (ELMG) DETERMINE ITS PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES
5. Sieving Properties of the ELMG Are Selective and Dynamic and in Series with Active Membrane Transport Systems
6. Pharmacological and Compartmentalizing Properties of the ELMG
7. Flow Sensing Properties of the ELMG

PART III PATHOLOGICALLY-INDUCED ALTERATIONS OF ENDOTHELIAL LUMINAL MEMBRANE GLYCOCALYX (ELMG)
8. The ELMG in Pathophysiological Conditions

Author Biographies

About the Author(s)

Rafael Rubio, University of Virginia
Rafael Rubio is an emeritus professor of physiology and biophysics at the University of Virginia (1969–1996) and the Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi in Mexico (1996–2015). He was born in Queretaro, Mexico, a beautiful Spanish colonial city regarded as a World Heritage Site. Being a child and because of a civil war, his family migrated to Mexico City where he grew up and did his undergraduate work. By serendipity he became interested in science at 16 years old when he found a job working a few hours in a physiology laboratory cleaning and organizing. This laboratory was at the National Institute of Cardiology in Mexico, headed by Dr. Arturo Rosenblueth, previously at Harvard University and Dr. Walter B. Cannon was a visiting professor. Young Rubio was assigned to assist Dr. Cannon in his experiments during which Cannon taught him neuroanatomy, surgical procedures, physiological principles, and a sense of humanity. Both Dr. Rosenblueth and Dr. Cannon as well as the lab atmosphere aroused Dr. Rubio's interest in science. With a meager salary, he remained working at the institute for several years, acquiring practical and conceptual physiological experience, and, as a result, the industrial company Syntex of Mexico offered him a better paying job in their Research Division. Three years later, hedecided to leave behind applied science and a good salary, went back to performing basic research at the Institute of Cardiology, was given his own laboratory, and ultimately published 25 papers. In Mexico, at that time, there were no doctoral programs and he had to improvise his own formal training through books and extracurricular courses, although he wanted to pursue the advanced degree. But, in 1964, a fortuitous visit by Dr. Robert M. Berne to his laboratory in Mexico City resulted in a fellowship to join the Physiology Graduate Program at Western Reserve University. When Bob Berne, his mentor and friend, moved to Charlottesville to be the chairman of the Department of Physiology at the University of Virginia, Rafael joined him. Dr. Rubio received his doctorate in 1968, was appointed to the faculty in 1969, taught cardiovascular physiology to medical students, mentored numerous graduate students and postdoctoral fellows in his lab, and left the university in 1996. During that time, he was awarded numerous grants, participated in various study sections of NIH and NSF, was on the editorial board of prestigious journals, and published 170 papers and book chapters on the mechanisms of coupling cardiac function and coronary blood flow. During the last few years at the University of Virginia, he investigated the properties of the luminal endothelial coronary membrane glycocalyx and he decided to return to his native Mexico "to make a difference." He joined the faculty of the School of Medicine of the Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi as a professor of cardiovascular physiology, where eight graduate students received their doctoral degrees and eight postdoctoral fellows worked in his lab; he published 30 papers on the role of the membrane glycocalyx in flow- and hormonal sensing mechanisms. Despite retiring from UASLP in 2015, he continues to write, review grant proposals, and deliver invited presentations internationally.

Maureen Knabb, West Chester University
Maureen Knabb is a professor emerita from West Chester University of Pennsylvania, where she was a professor of biology (1986-2015). She received a BS degree in biology from St. Joseph's University and a PhD degree in physiology from the University of Virginia in the laboratory of Dr. Rafael Rubio and Dr. Robert Berne. With Dr. Rubio, she learned to appreciate the importance of formulating an interesting research question and then determining the appropriate techniques to answer the question. After receiving her PhD degree, she completed a postdoctoral fellowship at Washington University in St. Louis and then was offered a faculty position at West Chester University. Her research questions initially focused on cell physiology of the cardiovascular system but eventually ranged from mechanisms of herpes virus infection to strategies to improve student learning in physiology, biochemistry, and anthropology courses. In 2009, she received a Fulbright fellowship to conduct research with her mentor, Dr. Rubio, at the Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi in Mexico. This collaboration and friendship has continued and deepened, resulting in numerous publications and a renewed appreciation of the importance of science to society. Following retirement, Dr. Knabb has continued to work with Dr. Rubio on this book summarizing his contribution to our understanding of the endothelial glycocalyx, but mostly she has enjoyed volunteering in the community as well as spending time with family and friends.

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