Exercise is the act of increasing metabolic rate for the purpose of enhancing physical fitness. Exercise can be one of the most stressful physiological responses that the body undertakes. With exercise, there are increases in metabolic rate, heart rate, blood flow (hyperemia), respiration, and heat production. The increased metabolic requirement during exercise is well met by an increased blood flow (functional hyperemia) and oxygen supply to the exercising tissue, which is regulated by multiple local and systemic mechanisms. The local mechanisms (factors) are responsible for mediating the muscle homeostasis and vascular conductance to match the increased metabolic requirement, whereas the systemic mechanisms are responsible for the maintenance of blood pressure and global cardiovascular homeostasis, including the increase in and redistribution of cardiac output, which is mainly mediated by sympathetic activation. For instance, the substantial decreases in vascular resistance and resultant large increase in blood flow during exercise require higher blood pressure and more cardiac output, such that the metabolically active muscle can be perfused with adequate blood flow. This book will provide an overview of the cardiovascular responses to exercise under physiological conditions as well as some pathological circumstances.
Table of Contents
Capillary Perfusion in Skeletal Muscle during Exercise
Local Control of Arteriolar Diameter and Blood Flow during Exercise
Systemic Control of Cardiovascular Response to Exercise
Cardiovascular Response to Exercise Under Pathological Conditions
About the Author(s)Lusha Xiang
, University of Mississippi Medical Center
Dr. Lusha Xiang joined Dr. Robert Hester's laboratory in the Department of Physiology and Biophysics at the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC) as a postdoctoral fellow in 2003 and became faculty in 2005. He is currently a research physiologist at the Army Institute of Surgical Research and also an affiliate faculty member at UMMC. His research has been funded by American Heart Association and the NIH, and is the recipient of several research awards, including the distinguished August Krogh Young Investigator Award from the Microcirculatory Society, and the Merck New Investigator Award from the American Heart Association. Dr. Xiang has over ten years of research experience in integrative physiology, obesity, diabetics, and metabolic syndromes. His research also involves the pathophysiology, cardiovascular complications, and organ dysfunction following traumatic injury and hemorrhagic shock.Robert L. Hester
, University of Mississippi Medical Center
Dr. Robert Hester received his BS in Biological Engineering from Mississippi State University and his PhD in Biomedical Engineering jointly from Mississippi State University and the University of Mississippi Medical Center. He was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Virginia in Dr. Brian Duling's laboratory, and joined the faculty at the University of Mississippi Medical Center in 1985. He is currently a Professor in the Department of Physiology & Biophysics at the University of Mississippi Medical Center, where he is also the Director of the Center for Computational Medicine. His research has been funded by the NIH, NSF, and American Heart Association. Dr. Hester has over 30 years of experience researching integrative physiology and teaching medical, dental, and nursing students. For the last 15 years he has also been leading the development of Hum-Mod (hummod.org), and other integrative physiological models. Dr. Hester is also President and CEO of HC Simulation, LLC, a software company developing HumMod.
This textbook by Lusha Xiang and Robert Hester represents a much-needed contribution to our existing store of knowledge. Xiang and Hester’s work is extremely thorough, effectively blending established knowledge with novel discoveries over the last few years, and with excellent applications to disease states where the coupling of cardiovascular responses to either exercise, elevated metabolic demand, or simply muscle contraction can be significantly deranged.
The work is very well and clearly written, easily understood by an audience with a wide array of experiences and would be extremely beneficial to multiple curricula and independent learning efforts. The illustrations are very clear and well-integrated with the body text, and the information is extremely well referenced.
This strikes me as an excellent reference text for the integrated understanding of how the cardiovascular system responds, at multiple levels, to exercise and metabolic challenge. The authors are to be commended for this work.
Jefferson C. Frisbee, Professor and Chair, Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, Ontario
The textbook, Cardiovascular Responses to Exercise written by Drs. Lusha Xiang Ph.D. and Robert Hester, Ph.D. is an informative review of the our current scientific understanding of the physiological responses to exercise. The authors are able to describe complex physiological principles in a writing style that is easily understandable and logically organized. The authors explain core concepts in exercise physiology, including the neural, cardiovascular, and respiratory responses to acute exercise, and integrate this foundational knowledge with recent experimental discoveries. The inclusion of a discussion of the effects of obesity and diabetes on the physiologic response to exercise is an important and timely addition. Illustrations included in the text are well made and easy to understand and supplement nicely the relevant discussion in the text. This textbook will serve as an excellent source material for those interested in the integrated physiological responses to exercise. The authors of this textbook are leaders in the field of exercise science. Their work has uncovered a number of fundamental mechanisms regarding blood flow control in skeletal muscle during exercise. I would like to congratulate the authors on their outstanding contribution the field of exercise science.
Jay Naik, University of New Mexico School of Medicine