There are five different types of eye movements: saccades, smooth pursuit, vestibular ocular eye movements, optokinetic eye movements, and vergence eye movements. The purpose of this book series is focused primarily on mathematical models of the horizontal saccadic eye movement system and the smooth pursuit system, rather than on how visual information is processed. A saccade is a fast eye movement used to acquire a target by placing the image of the target on the fovea. Smooth pursuit is a slow eye movement used to track a target as it moves by keeping the target on the fovea. The vestibular ocular movement is used to keep the eyes on a target during brief head movements. The optokinetic eye movement is a combination of saccadic and slow eye movements that keeps a full-field image stable on the retina during sustained head rotation. Each of these movements is a conjugate eye movement, that is, movements of both eyes together driven by a common neural source. A vergence movement is a non-conjugate eye movement allowing the eyes to track targets as they come closer or farther away. In Part 1, early models of saccades and smooth pursuit are presented. A number of oculomotor plant models are described therein beginning with the Westheimer model published in 1954, and up through our 1995 model involving a 4th-order oculomotor plant model. In Part 2, a 2009 version of a state-of-the-art model is presented for horizontal saccades that is 3rd-order and linear, and controlled by a physiologically based time-optimal neural network. In this book, a multiscale model of the saccade system is presented, focusing on the neural network. Chapter 1 summarizes a whole muscle model of the oculomotor plant based on the 2009 3rd-order and linear, and controlled by a physiologically based time-optimal neural network. Chapter 2 presents a neural network model of biophysical neurons in the midbrain for controlling oculomotor muscles during horizontal human saccades. To investigate horizontal saccade dynamics, a neural circuitry, including omnipause neuron, premotor excitatory and inhibitory burst neurons, long lead burst neuron, tonic neuron, interneuron, abducens nucleus, and oculomotor nucleus, is developed. A generic neuron model serves as the basis to match the characteristics of each type of neuron in the neural network. We wish to express our thanks to William Pruehsner for drawing many of the illustrations in this book.
Table of Contents
2009 Linear Homeomorphic Saccadic Eye Movement Model
A Neuron-Based Time-Optimal Controller of Horizontal Saccadic Eye Movements and Glissades
About the Author(s)Alireza Ghahari
, University of Connecticut
Alireza Ghahari received his B.Sc. degree in electrical engineering from the Sharif University of Technology, Iran, in August 2007. Thereafter, he completed his M.Sc. in electrical and computer engineering at the University of Tehran, Iran, in March 2010. During those years of study, he gained valuable insights into systems engineering by taking courses in a variety of contexts, such as statistical signal processing, information theory and coding, computer vision, and pattern recognition. He started his Ph.D. in the ECE department at University of Connecticut in Fall 2010. His dissertation major advisor was Prof. John Enderle. He has come to realize the profound contributions of Prof. Enderle in the field of theoretical and computational neuroscience,and truly considers John to be a major influence, both academically and personally. His research areas of interest include spiking neural networks analysis and implementation, brain-computer interface, and development of computational techniques.John D. Enderle
, University of Connecticut
John D. Enderle, Biomedical Engineering Program Director and Professor of Electrical & Computer Engineering at the University of Connecticut, received the B.S., M.E., and Ph.D. degrees in biomedical engineering, and M.E. degree in electrical engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, in 1975, 1977, 1980, and 1978, respectively. After completing his Ph.D. studies, he was a senior staff member at PAR Technology Corporation, Rome, New York, from 1979 to 1981. From 1981-1994, Enderle was a faculty member in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Coordinator for Biomedical Engineering at North Dakota State University (NDSU), Fargo, North Dakota. Dr. Enderle joined the National Science Foundation as Program Director for Biomedical Engineering & Research Aiding Persons with Disabilities Program from January 1994-June 1995. In January 1995, he joined the faculty of the University of Connecticut (UConn) as Professor and Head of the Electrical & Systems Engineering Department. In June 1997, he became the Director for the Biomedical Engineering Program at UConn.
Dr. Enderle is a Fellow of the Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE), the current Editor-in-Chief of the EMB Magazine, the 2004 EMBS Service Award Recipient, Past-President of the IEEE-Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS), EMBS Conference Chair for the 22nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS and World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering in 2000, a past EMBS Vice-President for Publications & Technical Activities and Vice-President for Member and Student Activities, Fellow of the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering (AIMBE), an ABET Program Evaluator for Bioengineering Programs, a member of the Engineering Accreditation Commission, a member of the American Society for Engineering Education and Biomedical Engineering Division Chair for 2005, and a Senior member of the Biomedical Engineering Society. Enderle was elected as a Member of the Connecticut Academy of Science and Engineering in 2003, with membership limited to 200 persons. He is also a Teaching Fellow at the University of Connecticut since 1998.