Integrated Physiology

Physiology is a scientific discipline devoted to understanding the functions of the body. It addresses function at multiple levels, including molecular, cellular, organ, and system. An appreciation of the processes that occur at each level is necessary to understand function in health and the dysfunction associated with disease. Homeostasis and integration are fundamental principles of physiology that account for the relative constancy of organ processes and bodily function even in the face of substantial environmental changes. This constancy results from integrative, cooperative interactions of chemical and electrical signaling processes within and between cells, organs and systems. This series on the broad field of physiology covers the major organ systems from an integrative perspective that addresses the molecular and cellular processes that contribute to homeostasis. Material on pathophysiology is also included throughout the books. These state-of-the-art treatises were produced by leading experts in the field of physiology. Each book includes stand-alone information and is intended to be of value to students, scientists, and clinicians in the biomedical sciences. Since physiological concepts are an ever-changing work-in-progress, each contributor will have the opportunity to make periodic updates of the covered material.

Editor Bios


Vascular Biology of the Placenta Vascular Biology of the Placenta
Yuping Wang
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall, thereby allowing nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply. Proper vascular development in the placenta is fundamental to ensuri...
Publication Date: 01/01/2010

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The Gastrointestinal Circulation The Gastrointestinal Circulation
Peter Kvietys
The microcirculation of the gastrointestinal tract is under the control of both myogenic and metabolic regulatory systems. The myogenic mechanism contributes to basal vascular tone and the regulation of transmural pressure, while the metabolic mechan...
Publication Date: 01/01/2010

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The Cerebral Circulation The Cerebral Circulation
Marilyn Cipolla
This presentation describes structural and functional properties of the cerebral circulation that are unique to the brain, an organ with high metabolic demands, and the need for tight water and ion homeostasis. Autoregulation is pronounced in the bra...
Publication Date: 01/01/2010

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Regulation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Function Regulation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Function
Raouf Khalil
Vascular smooth muscle (VSM) constitutes most of the tunica media in blood vessels and plays an important role in the control of vascular tone. Ca2+ is a major regulator of VSM contraction and is strictly regulated by an intricate system of Ca2+ mobi...
Publication Date: 01/01/2010

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Platelet-Vessel Wall Interactions in Hemostasis and Thrombosis Platelet-Vessel Wall Interactions in Hemostasis and Thrombosis
Rolando Rumbaut, Perumal Thiagarajan
Platelets are essential mediators of the physiologic process of hemostasis and pathologic thrombosis. While platelets do not interact with vascular walls under normal conditions, vascular injury or inflammation result in a coordinated series of event...
Publication Date: 01/01/2010

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Inflammation and the Microcirculation Inflammation and the Microcirculation
D. Neil Granger, Elena Senchenkova
The microcirculation is highly responsive to, and a vital participant in, the inflammatory response. All segments of the microvasculature (arterioles, capillaries, and venules) exhibit characteristic phenotypic changes during inflammation that appear...
Publication Date: 01/01/2010

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Hepatic Circulation Hepatic Circulation
W. Wayne Lautt
The Hepatic circulation is unique among vascular beds. The most obvious unique features include the dual vascular supply; the mechanism of intrinsic regulation of the hepatic artery (the hepatic arterial buffer response); the fact that portal blood f...
Publication Date: 01/01/2010

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Control of Cardiac Output Control of Cardiac Output
David Young
Although cardiac output is measured as the flow of blood from the left ventricle into the aorta, the system that controls cardiac output includes many other components besides the heart itself. The heart's rate of output cannot exceed the rate of ven...
Publication Date: 01/01/2010

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Colonic Motility Colonic Motility
Sushil Sarna
Three distinct types of contractions perform colonic motility functions. Rhythmic phasic contractions (RPCs) cause slow net distal propulsion with extensive mixing/turning over. Infrequently occurring giant migrating contractions (GMCs) produce mass ...
Publication Date: 01/01/2010

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Capillary Fluid Exchange Capillary Fluid Exchange
Joshua Scallan, Virginia Huxley, Ronald Korthuis
The partition of fluid between the vascular and interstitial compartments is regulated by forces (hydrostatic and oncotic) operating across the microvascular walls and the surface areas of permeable structures comprising the endothelial barrier to fl...
Publication Date: 01/01/2010

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Angiogenesis Angiogenesis
Thomas Adair, Jean-Pierre Montani
Angiogenesis is the growth of blood vessels from the existing vasculature. The field of angiogenesis has grown enormously in the past 30 years, with only 40 papers published in 1980 and nearly 6000 in 2010. Why has there been this explosive growth in...
Publication Date: 01/01/2010

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